Citrus (Citrus)

Citrus view

The Citrus They are fruit trees belonging to the genus Citrus, which are evergreen trees or shrubs that are grown in both small and large gardens and orchards, and even in pots.

They have great importance for humans, since apart from producing fruits with a pleasant flavor -except for lemon 😉-, they are also medicinal and very, very decorative.

Citrus main characteristics

The Citrus genus is naturally present in tropical and subtropical Asia. They grow between 5 and 15 meters in height, with a more or less straight trunk, and a fairly branched crown.. The leaves are green, lanceolate, with the entire margin. They usually bloom in spring, with small, white, aromatic flowers. But without a doubt, what you like the most is the fruit, which is a modified berry, with hardened skin and fleshy pulp, with a somewhat acidic flavor.

Citrus examples

Citron (Citrus medica)

Citrus medica

Image - Wikimedia / H. Zell

Known as citron, citron, grapefruit, French lemon or poncil lemon, it is a shrub between 2,5 and 5 meters high, with a stiff, twisted trunk. The leaves are simple, alternate, elliptical to lanceolate. It produces hermaphroditic and fragrant flowers, grouped in clusters. The fruits are oblong to globose, with a thick yellow or greenish skin, and sweet or acid pulp.

Tangerine (Citrus reticulata)

View of Citrus reticulata

Image - Wikimedia / douneika

It is a tree up to 7-8 meters tall, with simple, alternate and greenish leaves. The flowers are small, solitary or in inflorescences, white and very fragrant. The fruit is a small hesperidium, with normally thin skin and pulp with a slightly acidic but very pleasant flavor.

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Orange tree (Citrus x sinensis)

The orange tree is a fruit tree

Known as naranjero, sweet orange or orange tree, it is a tree up to 13 meters high which is usually left with up to 5 meters. The trunk is straight and cylindrical, with a rounded crown composed of medium and long leaves. The flowers are solitary or in clusters, and the fruit is rounded, with an acid taste but not unpleasant.

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orange trees are often sick
Related article:
Orange tree (Citrus x sinensis)

Grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi)

Grapefruit is a decorative and fruit tree

Image - Wikipedia / Syrio

Known as pomelo, grapefruit or grapefruit tree, It is a tree or small tree 5 to 6 meters high, with a rounded and little branched crown composed of simple, alternate and ovate leaves. The flowers are hermaphroditic, fragrant, and appear in small clusters or solitary. The fruit is rounded, covered by a thick shell that protects the 'segments' or meat with a sweet or acid flavor depending on the variety.

Cut grapefruit
Related article:
Grapefruit: care, uses, and much more

Lime / lime (Citrus x aurantifolia)

Known as lime or lime, it is a tree up to 6 meters high with a generally crooked trunk with branching starting very low. The branches have short, hard spines, and the leaves are ovate. The fruit is a yellow modified berry, the same color as the peel, although it is somewhat more greenish. The meat or pulp is acidic and juicy.

Lemon Tree (Citrus x lemon)

View of the lemon tree

Known as the lemon tree or lemon tree, it is an often thorny tree that reaches a height of 6-7 meters tall. The leaves are alternate, leathery, and its flowers are solitary or grouped in corymbs. The fruits are rounded, with a very acid taste, so much so that they are only used to flavor food and beverages.

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Lemon Tree
Related article:
How to care for a lemon tree

What are the care that Citrus requires?

Weather

Citrus fruits are plants that they are grown quite simply in warm temperate climates. It must be taken into account that, although they resist frosts, they must be weak and punctual. In areas where the temperature drops below -4ºC they will require protection.

Likewise, the maximums can be 38ºC or even 42ºC, as long as the soil or substrate is moist as they do not resist drought.

Earth

  • Flower pot: highly recommended to use prepared substrates, such as urban garden (for sale here!) that carries all the nutrients they need.
  • the garden: they grow in clay or slightly acid soils, with good drainage.

Irrigation

Must be frecuente. During the summer they may need 4-5 irrigations a week, and the rest of the year 1-2 weekly.

In any case, use rainwater or lime-free water whenever you can, otherwise you could have chlorosis.

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Fresh horse manure

So that they are well, it is important that you fertilize your citrus fruits throughout the spring and summer with organic fertilizers. When producing edible fruits, it is preferable to use natural (non-compound) products, such as guano, mulch, compost, or manure from herbivorous animals for example.

Multiplication

The Citrus multiply by seeds (rarely) and / or grafting.

Seeds

It is sown in autumn or spring, in pots or seedling trays with substrate for seedlings (for sale here!).

Another widely used option is to sow them wrapped in kitchen paper or wet cotton, and when they germinate, transfer them to pots.

Grafts

They are used from patterns to:

  • Carrizo, which is very resistant to limestone and salinity, but sensitive to waterlogging and drought.
  • Citrange troyer, which is a variety not very resistant to limestone, but which stimulates fruit production.
  • Bitter orange tree, which is very resistant to phytophthora, drought and limestone but sensitive to the sadness virus.

Citrus pruning

Uncommon, and not aggressive at all. They are trees that, although they tolerate pruning, it is not good to be cutting them every year since they lose many reserves. At least 3 years have to pass between pruning and pruning.

Dry, diseased, weak branches and those that are broken must be removed, as well as those that go inside and those that touch the ground. Always use pruning tools previously disinfected with alcohol from a pharmacy or dishwasher, and apply healing paste on large cuts.

Planting time

In spring, when the risk of frost has passed. They do not have invasive roots, but it is advisable to leave at least two meters between trunk and trunk so that it can develop in conditions.

How are citrus fruits consumed and what vitamins have?

The orange can be consumed as a drink

The citrus they are usually eaten as dessert, but they are also used to make juices, ice creams, yogurts, and to flavor other foods such as the lemon tree. They are rich in vitamins A, B1, B2 and C, as well as mineral salts and citric acid, which improves digestion.

And you, do you have any?


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