Serrano chili (Capsicum annuum)

serrano peppers on a table

El chile serrano or "Capsicum annuum" it comes from the mountains of northern Mexico, more common in those of Hidalgo and Puebla. It is also known as green chili and its main characteristic is its intense heat even more powerful than jalapeño. The shape is cylindrical, small in size and some end in a point.

Main characteristics of the serrano pepper

serrano chili placed on a plate

In Mexico it is highly consumed since it is present in countless typical dishes such as chilaquiles, in sauces, soups, stews and stews. The plant measures 50 to 150 centimeters, the leaves are flat, ovoid and elongated, the edges are smooth, the surface is hairy and green. The flowers are white, have 5 petals, are hermaphroditic and appear two months after being planted.

They are formed in the axillary area of ​​the plant, They come off after two days and give way to the birth of the chili peppers. Each plant is capable of producing 50 or more chili peppers, the average size being 5 to 15 mm wide by 60 mm long. Once developed, they reach approximately 4 cm, their tone changes from orange to red and the appearance is curved and elongated. A plant that can very well be grown at home since it is not very large and produces a good amount of chili peppers.

Farming

The first thing is to guarantee a soil since it must be light and with good drainage, the recommended is a good quality sand, soil and compost mix which guarantees that the seeds generate a product with a crunchy texture, the right thickness and the ideal degree of heat; three elements that directly affect the quality of the chili.

It is convenient to measure the quantities of the components of the substrate so as not to fall short, since the plant needs a good amount of nutrients to grow strong, healthy and give good chili peppers. It is worth noting that with a well-prepared soil, it is not necessary to fertilize continuously. The season for him chili cultivation It is summer, for this reason we must continuously monitor the irrigation without falling into excesses, that is, the soil puddling, since the roots are going to be damaged and the plant dies.

An indicative of excess fluid is that the plant turns yellowish, if it is in an open ground, it reduces the intensity of irrigation and if it is in a pot it prevents water from accumulating in the dish.

If the temperatures are very high and the dry substrate is noticeable on the surface, before watering it is important to check the humidity a little lower to determine whether or not to moisten the earth. Especially if the substrate does not have good drainage. The experts in these peppers recommend harvesting before they are ripe, which happens approximately 75 days after planting.

The cultivation requires good lighting, quality substrate and very well cared for irrigation and without exaggeration. Chilli peppers They must be collected directly from the plant as they are needed to always guarantee a fresh and quality product. According to crop experts, the recommendation is to plant them in the company of onion, coriander and tomatoes as they benefit each other.

Crop hazards

Germination and growth of the serrano pepper

Like other crops, they are exposed to various diseases and pests, which is why you have to be vigilant. Among the most common we find the Red spider, whiteflies, aphids and leaf miners. Regarding the diseases that occur in these crops, we have white mold and gray rot. Plantations require appropriate crops to avoid being affected by some of these elements.

Properties

Among its properties is the contribution of vitamin C and A, minerals such as iron and magnesium, fiber, calcium, sulfur carbohydrates, proteins, iodine, sodium and potassium, in addition to their high water content. The serrano chili has a primary use in Mexican cuisine, as we mentioned before, it is present in various traditional recipes and is highly appreciated for its high level of heat.

It also has other uses that benefit health, such as reducing blood pressure or reactivating the circulatory system, as well as contributing to skin care. Other of its properties focus on the heart attack prevention, lowers cholesterol, helps with blood pressure disorders and is a natural blood thinner.

It is also linked to analgesic, antimicrobial, anticancer, analgesic, migraine control, expectorant, appetite calming and metabolism accelerator, among other things. If we talk about the aesthetic part, they are attributed healing properties for acne, stimulation of collagen production, relieves burns, promotes hair growth and circulation.

Types of serrano pepper

Serrano peppers piled high

Actually there is only one chile serrano and from it hybrid species have been derived in which certain properties stand out, for example, some are more resistant to pests or diseases, others have more meat, others are better preserved over time or are more spicy and among these varieties, there are some that really stand out:

  • Colossus.
  • Tampico.
  • Centaur.
  • Paradise.
  • Tuxtlas.
  • Serrano 237.
  • Serranito.
  • Serrano Lord.
  • Serrano Huasteco.
  • Serrano del Sol F1.
  • Serrano 3036.
  • Balin serrano.
  • Serrano purple.
  • Dry Serrano.
  • Serrano Veracruz.
  • Yucatan dry mountain range.
  • Tampico Serrano.

Any of the serrano pepper plant species is characterized by the width of the crown that makes it face the sides, which you will observe mainly in the plants that are planted in open spaces. Even so, the fruits are usually larger and in greater quantities. than when planted in pots.

This chili is not only very popular and used in Mexican cuisine, since its heat and extraordinary flavor have made it the favorite of many other countries. In addition, it adapts to various growing conditions, which makes it easy to sow anywhere you have permanent sun and good substrate.

There are several elements of the serrano that make it highly valued, the first is that it not only provides a delicious spice but also leaves a well-pronounced flavor in food. It is so meaty and juicy that you can eat it rawYes, get ready for an explosion of flavor on your palate.


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  1.   Jesus said

    I planted in a pot on the roof of the house, but I don't know what to put on it as fertilizer or substrate, please recommend something.

    1.    Monica Sanchez said

      Hello Jesus.
      Let's see, fertilizer is not the same as substrate 🙂 . Substrate is soil, it is the medium in which plants grow. And fertilizer is "food", that is, nutrients.
      The chili needs a fertile, spongy soil that drains water well. And as for the fertilizer, as it is a plant that produces edible fruits, it must be fertilized with natural fertilizers, such as guano or manure, such as cow or goat manure, for example.
      A greeting.