Mallorca is an island of the Balearic archipelago, which is bathed by the Mediterranean Sea. This sea is considered inland, since it exists thanks to the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates the Iberian Peninsula from Africa. Unlike the Canary Islands, there are currently no active volcanoes in this archipelago, so the flora does not have to worry about it. Now, he does have other problems.
Drought is the most serious of all, since the lack of rain coincides with the summer, the hottest time of the year, when it can exceed 35ºC and even touch 40ºC in some points. That, added to the high relative humidity that exists due to the influence of the sea, makes the typical plants of Mallorca are survivors, like all those of the Balearic Islands.
Table of Contents
- 1 Wild olive (Olea europaea var sylvestris)
- 2 Almond (Prunus dulcis)
- 3 Granatense maple (Acer opalus var granatense)
- 4 Rock carnation (Dianthus rupicola subsp. bocchorian)
- 5 Bee flower (Ophrys apifera)
- 6 Ginesta (Genista cinerea)
- 7 Fern (Dryopteris pallida)
- 8 Heart of palm (Chamaerops humilis)
- 9 Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis)
- 10 Majorcan carrot (Daucus carota subsp. majoricus)
wild olive (Olea europaea var sylvestris)
El wild olive It is one of the evergreen shrubs or trees that we can see the most on the island.. It lives just as well in the north, that is, in the Sierra de Tramuntana, as in the south, where the temperatures are a little milder and it rains less. It is often planted in gardens, as it serves as an informal hedge, and furthermore, its fruits, although smaller than those of the olive tree, are also edible.
Almond tree (Almond)
El almond It is not native to the Balearic Islands, but to Asia, but it has been cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region for millennia. Today, as in the past, it is planted in orchards, but also in gardens. It reaches 10 meters in height, and blooms in spring, producing white (most common) or pink flowers according to varieties. The fruit is the almond, and can be eaten green or ripe.
Garnet maple (Acer opalus var. granatense)
El garnet maple It is the only maple of the Balearic Islands. In the past it used to form mixed groves, but as the climate gets warmer it becomes harder to find. In Mallorca, it only lives in the Sierra de Tramuntana, almost always in the shade, although it is not uncommon to find it growing a few meters from the sea, in full sun. It grows as a bush of 4-5 meters, or as a small tree of up to 7 meters., and its leaves fall in winter. In the Balearic Islands it is a protected species.
rock carnation (dianthus rupicola subsp. bocchorian)
The rock carnation is a near-threatened species endemic to the Balearic archipelago, specifically Cap de Formentor, northeast of Mallorca, where it is protected. It grows on cliffs and rocky terrain, reaching a height of approximately 30 centimeters, and Produces lilac flowers from summer to fall.
bee flower (Ophrys apifera)
One of the various native orchids of Mallorca is the one known as bee flower. It grows in the mountains, but also in meadows. It is terrestrial, can reach 50 centimeters in height, and develops green leaves. The flower is very curious, since it can be easily confused with bees. It blooms in spring, between April and May.
Ginesta (Genista cinerea)
La broom, broom or scab grass is a shrub that grows on the cliffs of the Sierra de Tramuntana, but that we can also find in some gardens. It is a very decorative plant, which reaches a height of 1-1,5 meters, and it is filled with yellow flowers during spring and summer. It has leaves, but they are small in size, so they lack ornamental value.
Fern (Dryopteris pallida)
At the beginning we said that drought is a problem in Mallorca, but the lack of water should not be confused with the relative humidity of the air. And it is that on this island it rains little, but what we do not lack is humidity. Every morning the plants wake up wet. This allows many to grow well, as is the case with some ferns, such as the Dryopteris pallida. This is endemic to the Sierra de Tramuntana, where it takes advantage of the caves and holes in the stone walls to develop. Its fronds -leaves- are green and measure up to 30 centimeters long.
Palmetto (Chamaerops humilis)
El palmetto It is the only autochthonous palm tree in Mallorca and the entire Balearic Islands. It is found in the Sierra de Tramuntana, and is also cultivated in numerous gardens on the island. It is also used in the decoration of streets and parks. It can reach 3-4 meters in height, and develops several stems -false trunks- with green fan-shaped leaves.
Aleppo pine ( propagating through a pine forest (Pinus halepensis).)
The Aleppo pine is the most common tree on the beaches of Mallorca, but it also grows in the mountains, and is widely used as a shade tree in parks and streets. It is evergreen, and can reach 25 meters in height. Its crown is very irregular, but if you wish, you can prune it in late winter to give it shape.
Majorcan carrot (Daucus carota subsp. majoricus)
The Majorcan carrot, or sea carrot as it is also called, it differs from the others mainly because of the flowers, which open so much that they form a kind of rounded ball. In addition, we find it in the south of Mallorca and on the nearby island of Cabrera, living near the sea. The leaves are green and somewhat succulent, and it blooms towards the end of spring.
I hope you liked the typical plants of Mallorca that we have shown you.