Yintoni i-phallenophilia?

Yintoni i-phallenophilia?

Inkqubo yokuzala yezityalo ifuna rhoqo isenzo sezilwanyana kunye nezinambuzane ezizalisekisa umsebenzi wokuhambisa ipoleni. Siqhele ukuva ngezinto ezihambisa ipoleni njengeenyosi namabhabhathane, kodwa asizihoyi ezinye iindidi ezinegalelo ekuveliseni izityalo, njengenundu. Ke ngoko, kwesi sihlandlo sifuna ukuthetha nawe malunga Yintoni i-phallenophilia?

Ukuba awuwathandi amanundu, unokutshintsha ingqondo yakho ekupheleni kweli nqaku, kuba uya kufumanisa ukuba azalisekisa uthumo olubalulekileyo ekuveliseni ezinye zeentlobo zezityalo othanda kakhulu. Kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo akuyi kukumangalisa ukwazi ukuba ezinye izityalo ziye zavela ukuze zisasazeke ipoleni kuphela zezi zinambuzane.

Isifo seentyatyambo

Isifo seentyatyambo

Ukuqonda ukuba yintoni i-phallenophilia, okokuqalaokanye kufuneka sazi ukuba yintoni i-floral syndrome. Iseti yeempawu ze-morphological kunye ne-physiological ekwabelwana ngayo ngeentyatyambo zeentlobo zezityalo ezahlukeneyo, ezisebenza ukutsala uhlobo oluthile lwe-pollinator.

Kukho iisyndromes ezimbini zeentyatyambo:

I-Abiotic floral syndromes

Zibonakaliswa ngenxa yokuba azitsali izilwanyana, kwaye kukho iindidi ezimbini:

  • I-anemophilia. Iquka ukudluliselwa kwepoleni ngumoya. Ekubeni akufuneki ukutsala i-pollinators, iintyatyambo zesi sifo azibonakali, kodwa zivelisa ubuninzi be-pollen. Le yipollen edla ngokuxhonywa kwimo engqongileyo kwaye ibangele ukwalana.
  • I-Hydrophilicity. Kukudluliselwa kwepoleni ngamanzi. Le syndrome ikhona kwizityalo zasemanzini, ezineentyatyambo ezincinci, ezingathandekiyo. Nangona kunjalo, kukho iintlobo ezahlukeneyo Izityalo zasemanzini ezineenkqubo zeentyatyambo eziye zavela ukuze zitsale i-pollinators, ezi zineentyatyambo ezintle.

I-Biotic floral syndromes

Zezo apho iintyatyambo kufuneka zifakwe ipoleni zizilwanyana. Ngaphakathi kwabo sifumana iintlobo ezahlukeneyo, kuquka i-phallenophilia.

  • I-Melitophilia. Kukudluliselwa kwepoleni ziinyosi. Ezi ntyatyambo zinomboniso kwaye zivulekile okanye ziyabonisa kwaye kunzima ukufikelela kuzo. Kwezinye iimeko umvumvuzelwano lwenziwa ngoonomeva kungekhona iinyosi, njengoko ngokuqhelekileyo kunjalo ngee<em>orchids.
  • I-Myophilia kunye ne-sapromyophilia. Kukusasazwa kweempukane. Ukuzitsala, iintyatyambo ezingena ngaphakathi kwesi sifo seentyatyambo zidla ngokukhupha ivumba elibi.
  • I-Psychophilia kunye ne-phallenophilia. Kukudluliselwa kwepoleni ngamabhabhathane namanundu.
  • I-Cantharophilia. Ibandakanya ukudluliselwa kwepoleni okwenziwa ngooqongqothwane. Azikho iintlobo ezininzi ezinezi ntyatyambo, kuba ooqongqothwane badla ngokuba yingozi kwizityalo. Kodwa i-magnolias kunye neenyibiba zamanzi zivelisa ngale ndlela.
  • I-Ornithophilia. Kukudluliselwa kwepoleni okwenziwa ziintaka, kwaye kwenzeka kwiintyatyambo ezinkulu ngobukhulu, njengezo zixhaphake kumahlathi ashinyeneyo akweleenjiko.
  • IChiropteraphilia. Iquka i-pollination ngamalulwane. Iintyatyambo zibonakala ngokuba zikhulu ngobukhulu kwaye zikwazi ukuvelisa incindi ixesha elide.

Yintoni i-phallenophilia?

Yintoni i-phallenophilia?

I-Phallenophilia yi-biotic floral syndrome. Oko kukuthi, isethi yeempawu ezikhoyo kwizityalo zeentlobo ezahlukeneyo ezifuna ubukho benundu okanye iinundu zokuzala kwazo.

Ezi ntlobo zeentyatyambo zihlala zinemilo ye-tubular, ukulungelelanisa ulwimi lwezi zinambuzane. Ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba incindi ifunxwa linundu kungekhona ezinye iintlobo, iintyatyambo zihamba ebusuku. Zivula xa kufika ubumnyama kwaye Bavala xa kuqalisa ukusa. Indlela yokutsala amanundu kukusebenzisa ivumba elimnandi.

Amanundu atya incindi yeentyatyambo, njengoko ehamba ukusuka kwesinye isityalo ukuya kwesinye arhuqa aze akhuphe umungu, nto leyo enegalelo kumvumvuzelwano lweentyatyambo ezizimazi ezinomungu osuka kwiintyatyambo zamadoda. Kukufowunelwa koqhagamshelwano, ekubeni I-pollen ibambelela emzimbeni kunye namaphiko enundu ngelixa isondla; ize ke ifuduselwe kwezinye iintyatyambo xa nazo ziye kufuna ukutya kuzo.

Kwenzeka ntoni kwezi meko yi-symbiosis egqibeleleyo. Inundu liza kwisityalo ukuze litye incindi yaso kwaye, ngaphandle kokuqaphela, ithatha umungu wayo kwezinye izityalo. Ukutshintshiselana, uhlobo lwesityalo lulawula ukuzala.

Kukwakho nezinye iindidi zamanundu eziye zaguquka neentlobo ezithile zezityalo. Lo nto kuphela iindidi ezithile zamanundu ezikwaziyo ukungenelela kumvumvuzelwano lwezityalo ezithile. Nantsi eminye imizekelo:

I-Sphinx moths kunye ne-orchids

I-Sphinx moths kunye ne-orchids

I-Sphinx moths ifaka iintloko zabo kwintyatyambo ye-orchid ukufikelela kwi-nectar kwaye ithathe i-pollen.

Kwimeko ye-orchids ye-Angraecum ye-genus, ezalelwa eMadagascar, iintyatyambo zabo zihamba ebusuku kwaye zinokuthi zihlanjululwe kuphela ngamabhu e-sphynx aneproboscises ende. Ezinye izinambuzane azikwazi ukufikelela kwincindi yazo ngokwasemzimbeni.

Amanundu eYucca

Amanundu ohlobo lwe-Tegeticula anobudlelwane be-symbiotic kunye nezityalo zosapho lwe-Agavaceae njenge-yucca. Amanundu abeka amaqanda kwiintyatyambo zesi sityalo. kwaye, ngokwenza njalo, baqhuba inkqubo yomvumvuzelwano.

Ngokwenxalenye yabo, i-larvae ye-moth idla kwimbewu ye-yucca kunye Zikhula ngaphakathi kwemidumba yezo mbewu.

Amanundu kunye nemithi yesundu

I-coconut palm moth inobudlelwane obusondeleyo nemithi yesundu. Njengokuba kunjalo nge<em>yucca, la manundu abeka amaqanda azo kwiintyatyambo zemithi yesundu yaye, xa athe ahlala phezu kwawo ukuze enjenjalo, athabatha umungu emizimbeni yawo aze awasasaze.

Inkqubo yendaleko eye yalandelwa zizityalo nezilwanyana iyamangalisa ngokwenene. Asikuko nje ukuba iintyatyambo ziye zavela ukuze zitsale i-pollinators ezithile, kodwa ziye zavelisa i-morphology ethintela ezinye izinambuzane ukuba zifikelele kuzo. Ngokuchanekileyo ngenxa yoku kuxhomekeka okukhoyo phakathi kwezilwanyana kunye nobukumkani bezityalo, ulondolozo lwe-ikhosistim kubaluleke kakhulu. Ngenxa yokuba ukunyamalala kolunye uhlobo lwezinambuzane, okanye izityalo, kusenokuthetha ukunyamalala kwezinye izityalo okanye izinambuzane.

Siyathemba ukuba ulifumene linomdla eli nqaku. Ngoku ukuba uyazi ukuba yintoni i-phallenophily, ngokuqinisekileyo uya kuqwalasela umsebenzi we-pollinators kunye nokumila kweentyatyambo ngamehlo ahlukeneyo.


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