Varieties of wheat

wheat varieties agriculture

In the world of agriculture there are certified seeds that are produced and marketed to adapt to current regulations. In this way, its quality is guaranteed since the specific hardness of the same and that it presents a great germination power is ensured. There are various wheat varieties in Spain that are grown thanks to their high yield and quality.

In this article we are going to tell you everything you need to know about the different varieties of wheat and their characteristics.

Common wheat varieties

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The varieties of soft wheat are those that guarantee a higher productivity in crops as well as an excellent quality in both the medium strength and the extensible lines. Let's see what these varieties are:

  • Soft spring wheat variety Galera. It is highly productive. The flour industry in our country is in great demand. Its quality is better than that of high intensity wheat varieties. It combines the quality and performance necessary for profitable harvests. It has great adaptability, it is the strongest variety among similar varieties, and it can provide higher productivity. In the Ebro Valley, Castilla La Mancha and Castilla León, irrigated cultivation is recommended. It has a strong resistance to diseases such as powdery mildew, septoria and brown rust. Its protein percentage is 15%.
  • Common spring wheat of the Badiel variety. This is a type of irrigated wheat, which yields more than other types of wheat. Its resistance to lodging is very strong, like the Gazul variety, it is resistant to diseases such as powdery mildew and septoria. Resistance to brown and yellow rust is moderate. In these frequently occurring areas, they must be treated with specific fungicides. It has a medium percentage of protein, its flour capacity has a high resistance value and provides an improved flour with a tendency to tenacity.
  • Califa Sur wheat variety. It is a variety up to 13% more productive. It presents a good adaptation both in the north and in the south of Spain. The strength values ​​are quite high and it has an amount of protein that exceeds 15%. Provides high stability flour and is a wheat that improves gluten. It is of short stature and its tillering capacity is quite high.

Durum wheat varieties

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The varieties of durum wheat are as follows:

  • Atoris: It is a variety that presents a high yield and is quite stable. It can adapt well to all types of terrain and is quite resistant to some diseases such as septoria and yellow rust. It has a high quality trio.
  • Wasp: It is one of the varieties of durum wheat best known for its great adaptability. It is one of the most sown in our country. And it is that it presents a great plant development and an excellent degree of tillering. Thanks to the genetic crosses it has a great resistance to diseases and to the network.
  • KikoNick: it also has a good production on all types of terrain. It has a great quality semolina and pastera. It has a high protein content and improves the quality of gluten. It has a good resistance to rusts and lodging.
  • Noviris: it is one of the varieties of wheat that are sown early but that have a high quality. It is mainly cultivated in the north of the peninsula and is resistant to diseases. It has a grain of excellent quality and a very good gluten.

The varieties of certified wheat seeds grown in Spain tend to be highly adaptable to terrain and climates, some highly resistant to diseases. But this is a field in which research continues to obtain better qualities for the future.

Classification

In the classification, the main wheat varieties are distinguished according to the two fundamental factors that are the following:

  • Genetic endowment: Durum wheat (Triticum durum) or common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Common wheat is the most widely cultivated type of wheat because it is used to make bread or feed flour. Its genetic endowment is hexaploid. In contrast, durum wheat has a tetraploid genetic endowment and a higher protein content; it is often used to make pasta.
  • Crop cycle: Winter wheat or spring wheat. Winter wheat is sown in the fall and is usually harvested 8-10 months later. A period of low temperature is needed to flower successfully (vernalization). In the case of spring wheat, it does not require vernalization. It is sown in spring and harvested about 4-6 months later.

Studies and research

wheat varieties

To test and determine the most productive wheat varieties, they were tested in Andalusia, Aragon, Castilla La Mancha, Castilla León, Catalonia, Euskadi, Estrela Madura, Galicia, Madrid and Navarra. The first four communities have the most trials.

The tests are grouped in different agroclimatic regions to facilitate the interpretation of the data taking into account the temperature and precipitation values ​​of each place. You must bear in mind that it is very important to compare the behavior data of the breeds according to the different climatic regions.

In order to be able to classify the varieties of wheat according to the temperatures, depending on the average temperature in the month of April, the following categories are established:

  • Cold areas, below 11 ° C.
  • Temperate areas, between 11 and 15 ° C.
  • Warm zones, above 13 ° C.

The areas classified according to the rainfall regime are established as the following categories:

  • Semi-arid areas, where the annual rainfall is equal to or less than 500 mm.
  • Sub-humid areas, with annual rainfall greater than 500 mm but less than 700 mm.
  • Humid areas, with an annual rainfall greater than 700 mm.

In this study, common winter wheat has been tested in 13 cold regions and 12 temperate regions. At the same time, common summer wheat was tested only once in cold regions, but 11 times in temperate regions and 8 times in warm regions. Durum wheat has been tested in 3 different cold locations, 7 warm and 6 warm. It should be noted that a variety can be produced in one agroclimatic zone, but not in another agroclimatic zone. It all depends on its adaptability to the climate of the region.

I hope that with this information you can learn more about the varieties of wheat that exist and their characteristics.


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